Abstract The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between symptoms of depression and the results of rehabilitation in workers who have suffered musculoskeletal injuries. More than 200 people participated, at the start, in the middle and at the end of a rehabilitation program, in tests related to depression, to pain intensity, to catastrophizing thoughts and to the fear of performing a movement. They also answered an interview 12 months after the end of the treatments. The results indicate that depression has a negative impact on a person’s response to rehabilitation and his return to work. In this report, the authors discuss the processes by which depression could influence chronic disability and the results of a rehabilitation program. They also address the clinical implications of the results obtained.