Abstract Mental health problems are re-emerging in organizations. Treatment approaches that reduce the symptoms of this disease are known. However, it is clearly demonstrated that despite the improvement in the functioning of the people, this is not necessarily associated with a return to work. This observation suggests that workplace disability associated with such a health condition is a complex multifactor phenomenon. Few studies have specifically evaluated the predictive factors and the obstacles to the resumption of occupational activities in these cases. For the first time, this study targets some fifty factors related to prolonged absence and to a return to work of individuals presenting a temporary mental disorder. The authors grouped them into four major categories: demographic and social, clinical, occupational and related to the insurance plan. To facilitate the systematic identification of these factors, an interview guide called the Outil d’identification de la situation de handicap au travail (OISHT, Tool for identifying the disability situation) was developed for practitioners. In the next few years, additional studies must be carried out to validate it.